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English Dictionary: introduction by the DICT Development Group
3 results for introduction
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) [wn]:
  1. the act of beginning something new; "they looked forward to the debut of their new product line"
    Synonym(s): introduction, debut, first appearance, launching, unveiling, entry
  2. the first section of a communication
  3. formally making a person known to another or to the public
    Synonym(s): presentation, introduction, intro
  4. a basic or elementary instructional text
  5. a new proposal; "they resisted the introduction of impractical alternatives"
  6. the act of putting one thing into another
    Synonym(s): insertion, introduction, intromission
  7. the act of starting something for the first time; introducing something new; "she looked forward to her initiation as an adult"; "the foundation of a new scientific society"
    Synonym(s): initiation, founding, foundation, institution, origination, creation, innovation, introduction, instauration
From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) [web1913]:
   Introduction \In`tro*duc"tion\, n. [L. introductio: cf. F.
      introduction. See {Introduce}.]
      1. The act of introducing, or bringing to notice.
      2. The act of formally making persons known to each other; a
            presentation or making known of one person to another by
            name; as, the introduction of one stranger to another.
      3. That part of a book or discourse which introduces or leads
            the way to the main subject, or part; preliminary; matter;
            preface; proem; exordium.
      4. A formal and elaborate preliminary treatise; specifically,
            a treatise introductory to other treatises, or to a course
            of study; a guide; as, an introduction to English

From Jargon File (4.2.0, 31 JAN 2000) [jargon]:
      This document is a collection of slang terms used by various
   subcultures of computer hackers.   Though some technical material is
   included for background and flavor, it is not a technical dictionary;
   what we describe here is the language hackers use among themselves for
   fun, social communication, and technical debate.
      The `hacker culture' is actually a loosely networked collection of
   subcultures that is nevertheless conscious of some important shared
   experiences, shared roots, and shared values.   It has its own myths,
   heroes, villains, folk epics, in-jokes, taboos, and dreams.   Because
   hackers as a group are particularly creative people who define
   themselves partly by rejection of `normal' values and working habits,
   it has unusually rich and conscious traditions for an intentional
   culture less than 40 years old.
      As usual with slang, the special vocabulary of hackers helps hold
   their culture together -- it helps hackers recognize each other's
   places in the community and expresses shared values and experiences.
   Also as usual, _not_ knowing the slang (or using it inappropriately)
   defines one as an outsider, a mundane, or (worst of all in hackish
   vocabulary) possibly even a {suit}.   All human cultures use slang in
   this threefold way -- as a tool of communication, and of inclusion, and
   of exclusion.
      Among hackers, though, slang has a subtler aspect, paralleled perhaps
   in the slang of jazz musicians and some kinds of fine artists but hard
   to detect in most technical or scientific cultures; parts of it are
   code for shared states of _consciousness_.   There is a whole range of
   altered states and problem-solving mental stances basic to high-level
   hacking which don't fit into conventional linguistic reality any better
   than a Coltrane solo or one of Maurits Escher's `trompe l'oeil'
   compositions (Escher is a favorite of hackers), and hacker slang
   encodes these subtleties in many unobvious ways.   As a simple example,
   take the distinction between a {kluge} and an {elegant} solution, and
   the differing connotations attached to each.   The distinction is not
   only of engineering significance; it reaches right back into the nature
   of the generative processes in program design and asserts something
   important about two different kinds of relationship between the hacker
   and the hack.   Hacker slang is unusually rich in implications of this
   kind, of overtones and undertones that illuminate the hackish psyche.
      But there is more.   Hackers, as a rule, love wordplay and are very
   conscious and inventive in their use of language.   These traits seem to
   be common in young children, but the conformity-enforcing machine we
   are pleased to call an educational system bludgeons them out of most of
   us before adolescence.   Thus, linguistic invention in most subcultures
   of the modern West is a halting and largely unconscious process.
   Hackers, by contrast, regard slang formation and use as a game to be
   played for conscious pleasure.   Their inventions thus display an almost
   unique combination of the neotenous enjoyment of language-play with the
   discrimination of educated and powerful intelligence.   Further, the
   electronic media which knit them together are fluid, `hot' connections,
   well adapted to both the dissemination of new slang and the ruthless
   culling of weak and superannuated specimens.   The results of this
   process give us perhaps a uniquely intense and accelerated view of
   linguistic evolution in action.
      Hacker slang also challenges some common linguistic and
   anthropological assumptions.   For example, it has recently become
   fashionable to speak of `low-context' versus `high-context'
   communication, and to classify cultures by the preferred context level
   of their languages and art forms.   It is usually claimed that
   low-context communication (characterized by precision, clarity, and
   completeness of self-contained utterances) is typical in cultures which
   value logic, objectivity, individualism, and competition; by contrast,
   high-context communication (elliptical, emotive, nuance-filled,
   multi-modal, heavily coded) is associated with cultures which value
   subjectivity, consensus, cooperation, and tradition.   What then are we
   to make of hackerdom, which is themed around extremely low-context
   interaction with computers and exhibits primarily "low-context" values,
   but cultivates an almost absurdly high-context slang style?
      The intensity and consciousness of hackish invention make a
   compilation of hacker slang a particularly effective window into the
   surrounding culture -- and, in fact, this one is the latest version of
   an evolving compilation called the `Jargon File', maintained by hackers
   themselves for over 15 years.   This one (like its ancestors) is
   primarily a lexicon, but also includes topic entries which collect
   background or sidelight information on hacker culture that would be
   awkward to try to subsume under individual slang definitions.
      Though the format is that of a reference volume, it is intended that
   the material be enjoyable to browse.   Even a complete outsider should
   find at least a chuckle on nearly every page, and much that is
   amusingly thought-provoking.   But it is also true that hackers use
   humorous wordplay to make strong, sometimes combative statements about
   what they feel.   Some of these entries reflect the views of opposing
   sides in disputes that have been genuinely passionate; this is
   deliberate.   We have not tried to moderate or pretty up these disputes;
   rather we have attempted to ensure that _everyone's_ sacred cows get
   gored, impartially.   Compromise is not particularly a hackish virtue,
   but the honest presentation of divergent viewpoints is.
      The reader with minimal computer background who finds some references
   incomprehensibly technical can safely ignore them.   We have not felt it
   either necessary or desirable to eliminate all such; they, too,
   contribute flavor, and one of this document's major intended audiences
   -- fledgling hackers already partway inside the culture -- will benefit
   from them.
      A selection of longer items of hacker folklore and humor is included
   in {Appendix A}. The `outside' reader's attention is particularly
   directed to the Portrait of J. Random Hacker in {Appendix B}.   Appendix
   C, the {Bibliography}, lists some non-technical works which have either
   influenced or described the hacker culture.
      Because hackerdom is an intentional culture (one each individual must
   choose by action to join), one should not be surprised that the line
   between description and influence can become more than a little
   blurred.   Earlier versions of the Jargon File have played a central
   role in spreading hacker language and the culture that goes with it to
   successively larger populations, and we hope and expect that this one
   will do likewise.
No guarantee of accuracy or completeness!
©TU Chemnitz, 2006-2019
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