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English Dictionary: C by the DICT Development Group
17 results for C
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) [wn]:
  1. being ten more than ninety [syn: hundred, {one hundred}, 100, c]
  1. a degree on the centigrade scale of temperature [syn: degree centigrade, degree Celsius, C]
  2. the speed at which light travels in a vacuum; the constancy and universality of the speed of light is recognized by defining it to be exactly 299,792,458 meters per second
    Synonym(s): speed of light, light speed, c
  3. a vitamin found in fresh fruits (especially citrus fruits) and vegetables; prevents scurvy
    Synonym(s): vitamin C, C, ascorbic acid
  4. one of the four nucleotides used in building DNA; all four nucleotides have a common phosphate group and a sugar (ribose)
    Synonym(s): deoxycytidine monophosphate, C
  5. a base found in DNA and RNA and derived from pyrimidine; pairs with guanine
    Synonym(s): cytosine, C
  6. an abundant nonmetallic tetravalent element occurring in three allotropic forms: amorphous carbon and graphite and diamond; occurs in all organic compounds
    Synonym(s): carbon, C, atomic number 6
  7. ten 10s
    Synonym(s): hundred, 100, C, century, one C
  8. a unit of electrical charge equal to the amount of charge transferred by a current of 1 ampere in 1 second
    Synonym(s): coulomb, C, ampere-second
  9. a general-purpose programing language closely associated with the UNIX operating system
  10. (music) the keynote of the scale of C major
  11. the 3rd letter of the Roman alphabet
    Synonym(s): C, c
  12. street names for cocaine
    Synonym(s): coke, blow, nose candy, snow, C
From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) [web1913]:
   Legate \Leg"ate\ (l[ecr]g"[asl]t), n. [OE. legat, L. legatus,
      fr. legare to send with a commission or charge, to depute,
      fr. lex, legis, law: cf. F. l[82]gat, It. legato. See
      1. An ambassador or envoy.
      2. An ecclesiastic representing the pope and invested with
            the authority of the Holy See.
      Note: Legates are of three kinds: ({a}) Legates a latere, now
               always cardinals. They are called ordinary or
               extraordinary legates, the former governing provinces,
               and the latter class being sent to foreign countries on
               extraordinary occasions. ({b}) Legati missi, who
               correspond to the ambassadors of temporal governments.
               ({c}) Legati nati, or legates by virtue of their
               office, as the archbishops of Salzburg and Prague.
      3. (Rom. Hist.)
            (a) An official assistant given to a general or to the
                  governor of a province.
            (b) Under the emperors, a governor sent to a province.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) [web1913]:
   Libration \Li*bra"tion\ (l[isl]*br[amac]"sh[ucr]n), n. [L.
      libratio: cf. F. libration.]
      1. The act or state of librating. --Jer. Taylor.
      2. (Astron.) A real or apparent libratory motion, like that
            of a balance before coming to rest.
      {Libration of the moon}, any one of those small periodical
            changes in the position of the moon's surface relatively
            to the earth, in consequence of which narrow portions at
            opposite limbs become visible or invisible alternately. It
            receives different names according to the manner in which
            it takes place; as: {(a)} Libration in longitude, that
            which, depending on the place of the moon in its elliptic
            orbit, causes small portions near the eastern and western
            borders alternately to appear and disappear each month.
            ({b}) Libration in latitude, that which depends on the
            varying position of the moon's axis in respect to the
            spectator, causing the alternate appearance and
            disappearance of either pole. ({c}) Diurnal or parallactic
            libration, that which brings into view on the upper limb,
            at rising and setting, some parts not in the average
            visible hemisphere.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) [web1913]:
   Monkey \Mon"key\, n.; pl. {Monkeys}. [Cf. OIt. monicchio, It.
      monnino, dim. of monna an ape, also dame, mistress, contr.
      fr. madonna. See {Madonna}.]
      1. (Zo[94]l.)
            (a) In the most general sense, any one of the Quadrumana,
                  including apes, baboons, and lemurs.
            (b) Any species of Quadrumana, except the lemurs.
            (c) Any one of numerous species of Quadrumana (esp. such
                  as have a long tail and prehensile feet) exclusive of
                  apes and baboons.
      Note: The monkeys are often divided into three groups: ({a})
               {Catarrhines}, or {Simid[91]}. These have an oblong
               head, with the oblique flat nostrils near together.
               Some have no tail, as the apes. All these are natives
               of the Old World. ({b}) {Platyrhines}, or {Cebid[91]}.
               These have a round head, with a broad nasal septum, so
               that the nostrils are wide apart and directed downward.
               The tail is often prehensile, and the thumb is short
               and not opposable. These are natives of the New World.
               ({c}) {Strepsorhines}, or {Lemuroidea}. These have a
               pointed head with curved nostrils. They are natives of
               Southern Asia, Africa, and Madagascar.
      2. A term of disapproval, ridicule, or contempt, as for a
            mischievous child.
                     This is the monkey's own giving out; she is
                     persuaded I will marry her.               --Shak.
      3. The weight or hammer of a pile driver, that is, a very
            heavy mass of iron, which, being raised on high, falls on
            the head of the pile, and drives it into the earth; the
            falling weight of a drop hammer used in forging.
      4. A small trading vessel of the sixteenth century.
      {Monkey boat}. (Naut.)
            (a) A small boat used in docks.
            (b) A half-decked boat used on the River Thames.
      {Monkey block} (Naut.), a small single block strapped with a
            swivel. --R. H. Dana, Jr.
      {Monkey flower} (Bot.), a plant of the genus {Mimulus}; -- so
            called from the appearance of its gaping corolla. --Gray.
      {Monkey gaff} (Naut.), a light gaff attached to the topmast
            for the better display of signals at sea.
      {Monkey jacket}, a short closely fitting jacket, worn by
      {Monkey rail} (Naut.), a second and lighter rail raised about
            six inches above the quarter rail of a ship.
      {Monkey shine}, monkey trick. [Slang, U.S.]
      {Monkey trick}, a mischievous prank. --Saintsbury.
      {Monkey wheel}. See {Gin block}, under 5th {Gin}.
      {Monkey wrench}, a wrench or spanner having a movable jaw.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) [web1913]:
   Motion \Mo"tion\, n. [F., fr. L. motio, fr. movere, motum, to
      move. See {Move}.]
      1. The act, process, or state of changing place or position;
            movement; the passing of a body from one place or position
            to another, whether voluntary or involuntary; -- opposed
            to {rest}.
                     Speaking or mute, all comeliness and grace attends
                     thee, and each word, each motion, forms. --Milton.
      2. Power of, or capacity for, motion.
                     Devoid of sense and motion.               --Milton.
      3. Direction of movement; course; tendency; as, the motion of
            the planets is from west to east.
                     In our proper motion we ascend.         --Milton.
      4. Change in the relative position of the parts of anything;
            action of a machine with respect to the relative movement
            of its parts.
                     This is the great wheel to which the clock owes its
                     motion.                                             --Dr. H. More.
      5. Movement of the mind, desires, or passions; mental act, or
            impulse to any action; internal activity.
                     Let a good man obey every good motion rising in his
                     heart, knowing that every such motion proceeds from
                     God.                                                   --South.
      6. A proposal or suggestion looking to action or progress;
            esp., a formal proposal made in a deliberative assembly;
            as, a motion to adjourn.
                     Yes, I agree, and thank you for your motion. --Shak.
      7. (Law) An application made to a court or judge orally in
            open court. Its object is to obtain an order or rule
            directing some act to be done in favor of the applicant.
            --Mozley & W.
      8. (Mus.) Change of pitch in successive sounds, whether in
            the same part or in groups of parts.
                     The independent motions of different parts sounding
                     together constitute counterpoint.      --Grove.
      Note: Conjunct motion is that by single degrees of the scale.
               Contrary motion is that when parts move in opposite
               directions. Disjunct motion is motion by skips. Oblique
               motion is that when one part is stationary while
               another moves. Similar or direct motion is that when
               parts move in the same direction.
      9. A puppet show or puppet. [Obs.]
                     What motion's this? the model of Nineveh? --Beau. &
      Note: Motion, in mechanics, may be simple or compound.
      {Simple motions} are: ({a}) straight translation, which, if
            of indefinite duration, must be reciprocating. ({b})
            Simple rotation, which may be either continuous or
            reciprocating, and when reciprocating is called
            oscillating. ({c}) Helical, which, if of indefinite
            duration, must be reciprocating.
      {Compound motion} consists of combinations of any of the
            simple motions.
      {Center of motion}, {Harmonic motion}, etc. See under
            {Center}, {Harmonic}, etc.
      {Motion block} (Steam Engine), a crosshead.
      {Perpetual motion} (Mech.), an incessant motion conceived to
            be attainable by a machine supplying its own motive forces
            independently of any action from without.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) [web1913]:
   Symbol \Sym"bol\, n. [L. symbolus, symbolum, Gr. sy`mbolon a
      sign by which one knows or infers a thing, from [?] to throw
      or put together, to compare; sy`n with + [?] to throw: cf. F.
      symbole. Cf. {Emblem}, {Parable}.]
      1. A visible sign or representation of an idea; anything
            which suggests an idea or quality, or another thing, as by
            resemblance or by convention; an emblem; a representation;
            a type; a figure; as, the lion is the symbol of courage;
            the lamb is the symbol of meekness or patience.
                     A symbol is a sign included in the idea which it
                     represents, e. g., an actual part chosen to
                     represent the whole, or a lower form or species used
                     as the representative of a higher in the same kind.
      2. (Math.) Any character used to represent a quantity, an
            operation, a relation, or an abbreviation.
      Note: In crystallography, the symbol of a plane is the
               numerical expression which defines its position
               relatively to the assumed axes.
      3. (Theol.) An abstract or compendium of faith or doctrine; a
            creed, or a summary of the articles of religion.
      4. [Gr. [?] contributions.] That which is thrown into a
            common fund; hence, an appointed or accustomed duty.
                     They do their work in the days of peace . . . and
                     come to pay their symbol in a war or in a plague.
                                                                              --Jer. Taylor.
      5. Share; allotment. [Obs.]
                     The persons who are to be judged . . . shall all
                     appear to receive their symbol.         --Jer. Taylor.
      6. (Chem.) An abbreviation standing for the name of an
            element and consisting of the initial letter of the Latin
            or New Latin name, or sometimes of the initial letter with
            a following one; as, {C} for carbon, {Na} for sodium
            (Natrium), {Fe} for iron (Ferrum), {Sn} for tin (Stannum),
            {Sb} for antimony (Stibium), etc. See the list of names
            and symbols under {Element}.
      Note: In pure and organic chemistry there are symbols not
               only for the elements, but also for their grouping in
               formulas, radicals, or residues, as evidenced by their
               composition, reactions, synthesis, etc. See the diagram
               of {Benzene nucleus}, under {Benzene}.
      Syn: Emblem; figure; type. See {Emblem}.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) [web1913]:
   C \C\ (s[emac])
      1. C is the third letter of the English alphabet. It is from
            the Latin letter C, which in old Latin represented the
            sounds of k, and g (in go); its original value being the
            latter. In Anglo-Saxon words, or Old English before the
            Norman Conquest, it always has the sound of k. The Latin C
            was the same letter as the Greek [GAMMA], [gamma], and
            came from the Greek alphabet. The Greeks got it from the
            Ph[oe]nicians. The English name of C is from the Latin
            name ce, and was derived, probably, through the French.
            Etymologically C is related to g, h, k, q, s (and other
            sibilant sounds). Examples of these relations are in L.
            acutus, E. acute, ague; E. acrid, eager, vinegar; L.
            cornu, E. horn; E. cat, kitten; E. coy, quiet; L. circare,
            OF. cerchier, E. search.
      Note: See Guide to Pronunciation, [sect][sect] 221-228.
      2. (Mus.)
            (a) The keynote of the normal or [bd]natural[b8] scale,
                  which has neither flats nor sharps in its signature;
                  also, the third note of the relative minor scale of
                  the same.
            (b) C after the clef is the mark of common time, in which
                  each measure is a semibreve (four fourths or
                  crotchets); for alla breve time it is written [?].
            (c) The [bd]C clef,[b8] a modification of the letter C,
                  placed on any line of the staff, shows that line to be
                  middle C.
      3. As a numeral, C stands for Latin centum or 100, CC for
            200, etc.
      {C spring}, a spring in the form of the letter C.

From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) [web1913]:
   d8Gastropoda \[d8]Gas*trop"o*da\, n. pl., [NL., fr. Gr. [?],
      [?], stomach + -poda.] (Zo[94]l.)
      One of the classes of Mollusca, of great extent. It includes
      most of the marine spiral shells, and the land and
      fresh-water snails. They generally creep by means of a flat,
      muscular disk, or foot, on the ventral side of the body. The
      head usually bears one or two pairs of tentacles. See
      {Mollusca}. [Written also {Gasteropoda}.]
      Note: The Gastropoda are divided into three subclasses; viz.:
               ({a}) The Streptoneura or Dioecia, including the
               Pectinibranchiata, Rhipidoglossa, Docoglossa, and
               Heteropoda. ({b}) The Euthyneura, including the
               Pulmonata and Opisthobranchia. ({c}) The Amphineura,
               including the Polyplacophora and Aplacophora.

From Jargon File (4.2.0, 31 JAN 2000) [jargon]:
   C n.   1. The third letter of the English alphabet.   2. ASCII
   1000011.   3. The name of a programming language designed by Dennis
   Ritchie during the early 1970s and immediately used to reimplement
   {{Unix}}; so called because many features derived from an earlier
   compiler named `B' in commemoration of _its_ parent, BCPL.   (BCPL
   was in turn descended from an earlier Algol-derived language, CPL.)
   Before Bjarne Stroustrup settled the question by designing {C++},
   there was a humorous debate over whether C's successor should be
   named `D' or `P'.   C became immensely popular outside Bell Labs
   after about 1980 and is now the dominant language in systems and
   microcomputer applications programming.   See also {languages of
   choice}, {indent style}.
      C is often described, with a mixture of fondness and disdain
   varying according to the speaker, as "a language that combines all
   the elegance and power of assembly language with all the readability
   and maintainability of assembly language".

From Jargon File (4.2.0, 31 JAN 2000) [jargon]:
   C++ /C'-pluhs-pluhs/ n.   Designed by Bjarne Stroustrup of AT&T
   Bell Labs as a successor to {C}.   Now one of the {languages of
   choice}, although many hackers still grumble that it is the
   successor to either Algol 68 or {Ada} (depending on generation), and
   a prime example of {second-system effect}.   Almost anything that can
   be done in any language can be done in C++, but it requires a
   {language lawyer} to know what is and what is not legal-- the design
   is _almost_ too large to hold in even hackers' heads.   Much of the
   {cruft} results from C++'s attempt to be backward compatible with C.
   Stroustrup himself has said in his retrospective book "The Design
   and Evolution of C++" (p. 207), "Within C++, there is a much smaller
   and cleaner language struggling to get out."   [Many hackers would
   now add "Yes, and it's called {Java}" --ESR]

From The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (15Feb98) [foldoc]:
      /see sharp/ An {object-oriented} language devised
      and promoted by {Microsoft}, intended to replace {Java}, which
      it strongly resembles.

From The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (15Feb98) [foldoc]:
      An {ASCII} rendition of the encircled "c" {copyright} symbol.
      Unfortunately, this rendition is not legally valid, the circle
      must be complete.   The word "copyright" in full is perfectly
      adequate though.
      (In {LaTeX} the copyright symbol is written as \copyright).
      [{Jargon File}]

From The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (15Feb98) [foldoc]:
      A programming language designed by {Dennis Ritchie}
      at {AT&T} {Bell Labs} ca. 1972 for systems programming on the
      {PDP-11} and immediately used to reimplement {Unix}.
      It was called "C" because many features derived from an
      earlier compiler named "{B}".   In fact, C was briefly named
      "NB".   B was itself strongly influenced by {BCPL}.   Before
      {Bjarne Stroustrup} settled the question by designing {C++},
      there was a humorous debate over whether C's successor should
      be named "D" or "P" (following B and C in "BCPL").
      C is terse, low-level and permissive.   It has a {macro
      preprocessor}, {cpp}.
      Partly due to its distribution with {Unix}, C became immensely
      popular outside {Bell Labs} after about 1980 and is now the
      dominant language in systems and {microcomputer} applications
      programming.   It has grown popular due to its simplicity,
      efficiency, and flexibility.   C programs are often easily
      adapted to new environments.
      C is often described, with a mixture of fondness and disdain,
      as "a language that combines all the elegance and power of
      {assembly language} with all the readability and
      maintainability of assembly language".
      Ritchie's original C, known as {K&R C} after Kernighan and
      Ritchie's book, has been {standard}ised (and simultaneously
      modified) as {ANSI C}.
      See also {ACCU}, {ae}, {c68}, {c386}, {C-Interp}, {cxref},
      {dbx}, {dsp56k-gcc}, {dsp56165-gcc}, {gc}, {GCT}, {GNU C},
      {GNU superoptimiser}, {Harvest C}, {malloc}, {mpl},
      {Pthreads}, {ups}.
      [{Jargon File}]

From The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (15Feb98) [foldoc]:
      (Formerly Calico).   An {object-oriented language} from {Bell
      Laboratories} which uniformly represents all data as a pointer
      to a self-described object.   C+@ provides {multiple
      inheritance} with {delegation} and with control over which
      {method}s come from which delegated object; and {default
      methodologies}.   It has a simple {syntax} with emphasis on
      graphics.   It was originally used for prototyping of
      telecommunication services.
      {Unir Tech} has the exclusive license from Bell Labs to
      distribute C+@.   Unfortunately Unir is owned and operated by
      well-known anti-{IETF} ranter, Jim Fleming, which may have had
      something to do with the language's rapid disappearence from
      the radar screen.
      It runs under {SunOS} and compiles to {Vcode}.
      E-mail: Jim Vandendorpe .
      ["A Dynamic C-Based Object-Oriented System for Unix", S.
      Engelstad et al, IEEE Software 8(3):73-85 (May 1991)].
      ["The C+@ Programming Language", J. Fleming, Dr Dobbs J, Oct
      1993, pp.24-32].
      [{Jargon File}]

From The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (15Feb98) [foldoc]:
      An {object-oriented}, {data-parallel}
      superset of {ANSI C} with synchronous {semantics}, for the
      {Connection Machine}, designed by {Thinking Machines}, 1987.
      C* adds a "domain" data type and a selection statement for
      parallel execution in domains.
      An unimplemented language called "{Parallel C}" [which one?]
      influenced the design of {C*}.   {Dataparallel-C} was based on
      Current version: 6.x, as of 1993-07-27.
      ["C*: An Extended C Language for Data Parallel Programming",
      J.R. Rose et al, Proc Second Intl Conf on Supercomputing,
      L.P. Kartashev et al eds, May 1987, pp 2-16].
      ["C* Programming Manual", Thinking Machines Corp, 1986].
      [{Jargon File}]

From The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (15Feb98) [foldoc]:
      (C More or Less) A subject-oriented language (SOL).
      Each C+- {class} instance, known as a subject, holds hidden
      {members}, known as prejudices, agendas or undeclared
      preferences, which are impervious to outside messages; as well
      as public members, known as boasts or claims.
      The following {C} {operators} are overridden as shown:
         >      better than
         <      worse than
         >>   way better than
         <<   forget it
         !      not on your life
         ==   comparable, other things being equal
         !==   get a life, guy!
      C+- is {strongly typed}, based on stereotyping and
      self-righteous logic.   The {Boolean} {variables} TRUE and
      FALSE (known as constants in other, less realistic languages)
      are supplemented with CREDIBLE and DUBIOUS, which are fuzzier
      than Zadeh's traditional fuzzy categories.   All Booleans can
      be declared with the modifiers strong and weak.   Weak
      implication is said to "preserve deniability" and was added at
      the request of the DoD to ensure compatibility with future
      versions of {Ada}.   Well-formed falsehoods (WFFs) are
      {assignment}-compatible with all Booleans.   What-if and
      why-not interactions are aided by the special conditional
      C+- supports {information hiding} and, among {friend classes}
      only, rumor sharing.   Borrowing from the {Eiffel} lexicon,
      non-friend classes can be killed by arranging contracts.   Note
      that friendships are {intransitive}, {volatile} and
      {Operator precedence} rules can be suspended with the
      directive #pragma dwim, known as the "{Do what I mean}"
      {ANSIfication} will be firmly resisted. C+-'s slogan is "Be
      Your Own Standard."
      [{Jargon File}]

From The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (15Feb98) [foldoc]:
      One of the most used {object-oriented} languages, a
      superset of {C} developed primarily by {Bjarne Stroustrup}
      at {AT&T} {Bell Laboratories} in 1986.
      In C++ a {class} is a user-defined {type}, syntactically a
      {struct} with {member functions}.   {Constructors} and
      {destructors} are member functions called to create or destroy
      {instances}.   A {friend} is a nonmember function that is
      allowed to access the private portion of a class.   C++ allows
      {implicit type conversion}, {function inlining}, {overloading}
      of operators and function names, and {default function
      arguments}.   It has {streams} for I/O and {references}.
      C++ 2.0 (May 1989) introduced {multiple inheritance},
      {type-safe linkage}, pointers to members, and {abstract
      C++ 2.1 was introduced in ["Annotated C++ Reference Manual",
      B. Stroustrup et al, A-W 1990].
      {Unix ANSI C++
      (} - X3J16
      committee. (They're workin' on it).
      See also {cfront}, {LEDA}, {uC++}.
      {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.lang.c++}.
      ["The C++ Programming Language", Bjarne Stroustrup, A-W,
No guarantee of accuracy or completeness!
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