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English Dictionary: Version by the DICT Development Group
4 results for Version
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) [wn]:
  1. an interpretation of a matter from a particular viewpoint; "his version of the fight was different from mine"
  2. something a little different from others of the same type; "an experimental version of the night fighter"; "a variant of the same word"; "an emery wheel is the modern variation of a grindstone"; "the boy is a younger edition of his father"
    Synonym(s): version, variant, variation, edition
  3. a written work (as a novel) that has been recast in a new form; "the play is an adaptation of a short novel"
    Synonym(s): adaptation, version
  4. a written communication in a second language having the same meaning as the written communication in a first language
    Synonym(s): translation, interlingual rendition, rendering, version
  5. a mental representation of the meaning or significance of something
    Synonym(s): interpretation, reading, version
  6. manual turning of a fetus in the uterus (usually to aid delivery)
From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) [web1913]:
   Version \Ver"sion\, n. [F., from L. vertere, versum, to turn, to
      change, to translate. See {Verse}.]
      1. A change of form, direction, or the like; transformation;
            conversion; turning.
                     The version of air into water.            --Bacon.
      2. (Med.) A condition of the uterus in which its axis is
            deflected from its normal position without being bent upon
            itself. See {Anteversion}, and {Retroversion}.
      3. The act of translating, or rendering, from one language
            into another language.
      4. A translation; that which is rendered from another
            language; as, the Common, or Authorized, Version of the
            Scriptures (see under {Authorized}); the Septuagint
            Version of the Old Testament.
      5. An account or description from a particular point of view,
            especially as contrasted with another account; as, he gave
            another version of the affair.

From The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (15Feb98) [foldoc]:
      One of a sequence of copies of a program, each
      incorporating new modifications.   Each version is usually
      identified by a number, commonly of the form X.Y where X is
      the major version number and Y is the release number.
      Typically an increment in X (with Y reset to zero) signifies a
      substantial increase in the function of the program or a
      partial or total re-implementation, whereas Y increases each
      time the progam is changed in any way and re-released.
      Version numbers are useful so that the user can know if the
      program has changed ({bug}s have been fixed or new functions
      added) since he obtained his copy and the programmer can tell
      if a bug report relates to the current version.   It is thus
      always important to state the version when reporting bugs.
      Statements about compatibility between different software
      components should always say which versions they apply to.
      See {change management}.

From Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary [easton]:
      a translation of the holy Scriptures. This word is not found in
      the Bible, nevertheless, as frequent references are made in this
      work to various ancient as well as modern versions, it is
      fitting that some brief account should be given of the most
      important of these. These versions are important helps to the
      right interpretation of the Word. (See SAMARITAN {PENTATEUCH}.)
         1. The Targums. After the return from the Captivity, the Jews,
      no longer familiar with the old Hebrew, required that their
      Scriptures should be translated for them into the Chaldaic or
      Aramaic language and interpreted. These translations and
      paraphrases were at first oral, but they were afterwards reduced
      to writing, and thus targums, i.e., "versions" or
      "translations", have come down to us. The chief of these are,
      (1.) The Onkelos Targum, i.e., the targum of Akelas=Aquila, a
      targum so called to give it greater popularity by comparing it
      with the Greek translation of Aquila mentioned below. This
      targum originated about the second century after Christ. (2.)
      The targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel comes next to that of Onkelos
      in respect of age and value. It is more a paraphrase on the
      Prophets, however, than a translation. Both of these targums
      issued from the Jewish school which then flourished at Babylon.
         2. The Greek Versions. (1.) The oldest of these is the
      Septuagint, usually quoted as the LXX. The origin of this the
      most important of all the versions is involved in much
      obscurity. It derives its name from the popular notion that
      seventy-two translators were employed on it by the direction of
      Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, and that it was
      accomplished in seventy-two days, for the use of the Jews
      residing in that country. There is no historical warrant for
      this notion. It is, however, an established fact that this
      version was made at Alexandria; that it was begun about 280
      B.C., and finished about 200 or 150 B.C.; that it was the work
      of a number of translators who differed greatly both in their
      knowledge of Hebrew and of Greek; and that from the earliest
      times it has borne the name of "The Septuagint", i.e., The
         "This version, with all its defects, must be of the greatest
      interest, (a) as preserving evidence for the text far more
      ancient than the oldest Hebrew manuscripts; (b) as the means by
      which the Greek Language was wedded to Hebrew thought; (c) as
      the source of the great majority of quotations from the Old
      Testament by writers of the New Testament.
         (2.) The New Testament manuscripts fall into two divisions,
      Uncials, written in Greek capitals, with no distinction at all
      between the different words, and very little even between the
      different lines; and Cursives, in small Greek letters, and with
      divisions of words and lines. The change between the two kinds
      of Greek writing took place about the tenth century. Only five
      manuscripts of the New Testament approaching to completeness are
      more ancient than this dividing date. The first, numbered A, is
      the Alexandrian manuscript. Though brought to this country by
      Cyril Lucar, patriarch of Constantinople, as a present to
      Charles I., it is believed that it was written, not in that
      capital, but in Alexandria; whence its title. It is now dated in
      the fifth century A.D. The second, known as B, is the Vatican
      manuscript. (See {VATICANUS}.) The Third, C, or the
      Ephraem manuscript, was so called because it was written over
      the writings of Ephraem, a Syrian theological author, a practice
      very common in the days when writing materials were scarce and
      dear. It is believed that it belongs to the fifth century, and
      perhaps a slightly earlier period of it than the manuscript A.
      The fourth, D, or the manuscript of Beza, was so called because
      it belonged to the reformer Beza, who found it in the monastery
      of St. Irenaeus at Lyons in 1562 A.D. It is imperfect, and is
      dated in the sixth century. The fifth (called Aleph) is the
      Sinaitic manuscript. (See {SINAITICUS}.)
         3. The Syriac Versions. (See {SYRIAC}.)
         4. The Latin Versions. A Latin version of the Scriptures,
      called the "Old Latin," which originated in North Africa, was in
      common use in the time of Tertullian (A.D. 150). Of this there
      appear to have been various copies or recensions made. That made
      in Italy, and called the Itala, was reckoned the most accurate.
      This translation of the Old Testament seems to have been made
      not from the original Hebrew but from the LXX.
         This version became greatly corrupted by repeated
      transcription, and to remedy the evil Jerome (A.D. 329-420) was
      requested by Damasus, the bishop of Rome, to undertake a
      complete revision of it. It met with opposition at first, but
      was at length, in the seventh century, recognized as the
      "Vulgate" version. It appeared in a printed from about A.D.
      1455, the first book that ever issued from the press. The
      Council of Trent (1546) declared it "authentic." It subsequently
      underwent various revisions, but that which was executed (1592)
      under the sanction of Pope Clement VIII. was adopted as the
      basis of all subsequent editions. It is regarded as the sacred
      original in the Roman Catholic Church. All modern European
      versions have been more or less influenced by the Vulgate. This
      version reads _ipsa_ instead of _ipse_ in Gen. 3:15, "She shall
      bruise thy head."
         5. There are several other ancient versions which are of
      importance for Biblical critics, but which we need not mention
      particularly, such as the Ethiopic, in the fourth century, from
      the LXX.; two Egyptian versions, about the fourth century, the
      Memphitic, circulated in Lower Egypt, and the Thebaic, designed
      for Upper Egypt, both from the Greek; the Gothic, written in the
      German language, but with the Greek alphabet, by Ulphilas (died
      A.D. 388), of which only fragments of the Old Testament remain;
      the Armenian, about A.D. 400; and the Slavonic, in the ninth
      century, for ancient Moravia. Other ancient versions, as the
      Arabic, the Persian, and the Anglo-Saxon, may be mentioned.
         6. The history of the English versions begins properly with
      Wyckliffe. Portions, however, of the Scriptures were rendered
      into Saxon (as the Gospel according to John, by Bede, A.D. 735),
      and also into English (by Orme, called the "Ormulum," a portion
      of the Gospels and of the Acts in the form of a metrical
      paraphrase, toward the close of the seventh century), long
      before Wyckliffe; but it is to him that the honour belongs of
      having first rendered the whole Bible into English (A.D. 1380).
      This version was made from the Vulgate, and renders Gen. 3:15
      after that Version, "She shall trede thy head."
         This was followed by Tyndale's translation (1525-1531); Miles
      Coverdale's (1535-1553); Thomas Matthew's (1537), really,
      however, the work of John Rogers, the first martyr under the
      reign of Queen Mary. This was properly the first Authorized
      Version, Henry VIII. having ordered a copy of it to be got for
      every church. This took place in less than a year after Tyndale
      was martyred for the crime of translating the Scriptures. In
      1539 Richard Taverner published a revised edition of Matthew's
      Bible. The Great Bible, so called from its great size, called
      also Cranmer's Bible, was published in 1539 and 1568. In the
      strict sense, the "Great Bible" is "the only authorized version;
      for the Bishops' Bible and the present Bible [the A.V.] never
      had the formal sanction of royal authority." Next in order was
      the Geneva version (1557-1560); the Bishops' Bible (1568); the
      Rheims and Douai versions, under Roman Catholic auspices (1582,
      1609); the Authorized Version (1611); and the Revised Version of
      the New Testament in 1880 and of the Old Testament in 1884.
No guarantee of accuracy or completeness!
©TU Chemnitz, 2006-2017
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