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English Dictionary: pharaoh by the DICT Development Group
4 results for pharaoh
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) [wn]:
  1. the title of the ancient Egyptian kings [syn: Pharaoh, Pharaoh of Egypt]
From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) [web1913]:
   Pharaoh \Pha"raoh\, n. [Heb. par[d3]h; of Egyptian origin: cf.
      L. pharao, Gr. [?]. Cf. {Faro}.]
      1. A title by which the sovereigns of ancient Egypt were
      2. See {Faro}.
      {Pharaoh's chicken} (Zo[94]l.), the gier-eagle, or Egyptian
            vulture; -- so called because often sculpured on Egyptian
            monuments. It is nearly white in color.
      {Pharaoh's rat} (Zo[94]l.), the common ichneumon.

From Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary [easton]:
      the official title borne by the Egyptian kings down to the time
      when that country was conquered by the Greeks. (See {EGYPT}.) The name is a compound, as some think, of the words
      Ra, the "sun" or "sun-god," and the article phe, "the,"
      prefixed; hence phera, "the sun," or "the sun-god." But others,
      perhaps more correctly, think the name derived from Perao, "the
      great house" = his majesty = in Turkish, "the Sublime Porte."
         (1.) The Pharaoh who was on the throne when Abram went down
      into Egypt (Gen. 12:10-20) was probably one of the Hyksos, or
      "shepherd kings." The Egyptians called the nomad tribes of Syria
      Shasu, "plunderers," their king or chief Hyk, and hence the name
      of those invaders who conquered the native kings and established
      a strong government, with Zoan or Tanis as their capital. They
      were of Semitic origin, and of kindred blood accordingly with
      Abram. They were probably driven forward by the pressure of the
      Hittites. The name they bear on the monuments is "Mentiu."
         (2.) The Pharaoh of Joseph's days (Gen. 41) was probably
      Apopi, or Apopis, the last of the Hyksos kings. To the old
      native Egyptians, who were an African race, shepherds were "an
      abomination;" but to the Hyksos kings these Asiatic shepherds
      who now appeared with Jacob at their head were congenial, and
      being akin to their own race, had a warm welcome (Gen. 47:5, 6).
      Some argue that Joseph came to Egypt in the reign of Thothmes
      III., long after the expulsion of the Hyksos, and that his
      influence is to be seen in the rise and progress of the
      religious revolution in the direction of monotheism which
      characterized the middle of the Eighteenth Dynasty. The wife of
      Amenophis III., of that dynasty, was a Semite. Is this singular
      fact to be explained from the presence of some of Joseph's
      kindred at the Egyptian court? Pharaoh said to Joseph, "Thy
      father and thy brethren are come unto thee: the land of Egypt is
      before thee; in the best of the land make thy father and
      brethren to dwell" (Gen. 47:5, 6).
         (3.) The "new king who knew not Joseph" (Ex. 1:8-22) has been
      generally supposed to have been Aahmes I., or Amosis, as he is
      called by Josephus. Recent discoveries, however, have led to the
      conclusion that Seti was the "new king."
         For about seventy years the Hebrews in Egypt were under the
      powerful protection of Joseph. After his death their condition
      was probably very slowly and gradually changed. The invaders,
      the Hyksos, who for some five centuries had been masters of
      Egypt, were driven out, and the old dynasty restored. The
      Israelites now began to be looked down upon. They began to be
      afflicted and tyrannized over. In process of time a change
      appears to have taken place in the government of Egypt. A new
      dynasty, the Nineteenth, as it is called, came into power under
      Seti I., who was its founder. He associated with him in his
      government his son, Rameses II., when he was yet young, probably
      ten or twelve years of age.
         Note, Professor Maspero, keeper of the museum of Bulak, near
      Cairo, had his attention in 1870 directed to the fact that
      scarabs, i.e., stone and metal imitations of the beetle (symbols
      of immortality), originally worn as amulets by royal personages,
      which were evidently genuine relics of the time of the ancient
      Pharaohs, were being sold at Thebes and different places along
      the Nile. This led him to suspect that some hitherto
      undiscovered burial-place of the Pharaohs had been opened, and
      that these and other relics, now secretly sold, were a part of
      the treasure found there. For a long time he failed, with all
      his ingenuity, to find the source of these rare treasures. At
      length one of those in the secret volunteered to give
      information regarding this burial-place. The result was that a
      party was conducted in 1881 to Dier el-Bahari, near Thebes, when
      the wonderful discovery was made of thirty-six mummies of kings,
      queens, princes, and high priests hidden away in a cavern
      prepared for them, where they had lain undisturbed for thirty
      centuries. "The temple of Deir el-Bahari stands in the middle of
      a natural amphitheatre of cliffs, which is only one of a number
      of smaller amphitheatres into which the limestone mountains of
      the tombs are broken up. In the wall of rock separating this
      basin from the one next to it some ancient Egyptian engineers
      had constructed the hiding-place, whose secret had been kept for
      nearly three thousand years." The exploring party being guided
      to the place, found behind a great rock a shaft 6 feet square
      and about 40 feet deep, sunk into the limestone. At the bottom
      of this a passage led westward for 25 feet, and then turned
      sharply northward into the very heart of the mountain, where in
      a chamber 23 feet by 13, and 6 feet in height, they came upon
      the wonderful treasures of antiquity. The mummies were all
      carefully secured and brought down to Bulak, where they were
      deposited in the royal museum, which has now been removed to
         Among the most notable of the ancient kings of Egypt thus
      discovered were Thothmes III., Seti I., and Rameses II. Thothmes
      III. was the most distinguished monarch of the brilliant
      Eighteenth Dynasty. When this mummy was unwound "once more,
      after an interval of thirty-six centuries, human eyes gazed on
      the features of the man who had conquered Syria and Cyprus and
      Ethiopia, and had raised Egypt to the highest pinnacle of her
      power. The spectacle, however, was of brief duration. The
      remains proved to be in so fragile a state that there was only
      time to take a hasty photograph, and then the features crumbled
      to pieces and vanished like an apparition, and so passed away
      from human view for ever." "It seems strange that though the
      body of this man," who overran Palestine with his armies two
      hundred years before the birth of Moses, "mouldered to dust, the
      flowers with which it had been wreathed were so wonderfully
      preserved that even their colour could be distinguished"
      (Manning's Land of the Pharaohs).
         Seti I. (his throne name Merenptah), the father of Rameses
      II., was a great and successful warrior, also a great builder.
      The mummy of this Pharaoh, when unrolled, brought to view "the
      most beautiful mummy head ever seen within the walls of the
      museum. The sculptors of Thebes and Abydos did not flatter this
      Pharaoh when they gave him that delicate, sweet, and smiling
      profile which is the admiration of travellers. After a lapse of
      thirty-two centuries, the mummy retains the same expression
      which characterized the features of the living man. Most
      remarkable of all, when compared with the mummy of Rameses II.,
      is the striking resemblance between the father and the son. Seti
      I. is, as it were, the idealized type of Rameses II. He must
      have died at an advanced age. The head is shaven, the eyebrows
      are white, the condition of the body points to considerably more
      than threescore years of life, thus confirming the opinions of
      the learned, who have attributed a long reign to this king."
         (4.) Rameses II., the son of Seti I., is probably the Pharaoh
      of the Oppression. During his forty years' residence at the
      court of Egypt, Moses must have known this ruler well. During
      his sojourn in Midian, however, Rameses died, after a reign of
      sixty-seven years, and his body embalmed and laid in the royal
      sepulchre in the Valley of the Tombs of Kings beside that of his
      father. Like the other mummies found hidden in the cave of Deir
      el-Bahari, it had been for some reason removed from its original
      tomb, and probably carried from place to place till finally
      deposited in the cave where it was so recently discovered.
         In 1886, the mummy of this king, the "great Rameses," the
      "Sesostris" of the Greeks, was unwound, and showed the body of
      what must have been a robust old man. The features revealed to
      view are thus described by Maspero: "The head is long and small
      in proportion to the body. The top of the skull is quite bare.
      On the temple there are a few sparse hairs, but at the poll the
      hair is quite thick, forming smooth, straight locks about two
      inches in length. White at the time of death, they have been
      dyed a light yellow by the spices used in embalmment. The
      forehead is low and narrow; the brow-ridge prominent; the
      eye-brows are thick and white; the eyes are small and close
      together; the nose is long, thin, arched like the noses of the
      Bourbons; the temples are sunk; the cheek-bones very prominent;
      the ears round, standing far out from the head, and pierced,
      like those of a woman, for the wearing of earrings; the jaw-bone
      is massive and strong; the chin very prominent; the mouth small,
      but thick-lipped; the teeth worn and very brittle, but white and
      well preserved. The moustache and beard are thin. They seem to
      have been kept shaven during life, but were probably allowed to
      grow during the king's last illness, or they may have grown
      after death. The hairs are white, like those of the head and
      eyebrows, but are harsh and bristly, and a tenth of an inch in
      length. The skin is of an earthy-brown, streaked with black.
      Finally, it may be said, the face of the mummy gives a fair idea
      of the face of the living king. The expression is
      unintellectual, perhaps slightly animal; but even under the
      somewhat grotesque disguise of mummification there is plainly to
      be seen an air of sovereign majesty, of resolve, and of pride."
         Both on his father's and his mother's side it has been pretty
      clearly shown that Rameses had Chaldean or Mesopotamian blood in
      his veins to such a degree that he might be called an Assyrian.
      This fact is thought to throw light on Isa. 52:4.
         (5.) The Pharaoh of the Exodus was probably Menephtah I., the
      fourteenth and eldest surviving son of Rameses II. He resided at
      Zoan, where he had the various interviews with Moses and Aaron
      recorded in the book of Exodus. His mummy was not among those
      found at Deir el-Bahari. It is still a question, however,
      whether Seti II. or his father Menephtah was the Pharaoh of the
      Exodus. Some think the balance of evidence to be in favour of
      the former, whose reign it is known began peacefully, but came
      to a sudden and disastrous end. The "Harris papyrus," found at
      Medinet-Abou in Upper Egypt in 1856, a state document written by
      Rameses III., the second king of the Twentieth Dynasty, gives at
      length an account of a great exodus from Egypt, followed by
      wide-spread confusion and anarchy. This, there is great reason
      to believe, was the Hebrew exodus, with which the Nineteenth
      Dynasty of the Pharaohs came to an end. This period of anarchy
      was brought to a close by Setnekht, the founder of the Twentieth
         "In the spring of 1896, Professor Flinders Petrie discovered,
      among the ruins of the temple of Menephtah at Thebes, a large
      granite stela, on which is engraved a hymn of victory
      commemorating the defeat of Libyan invaders who had overrun the
      Delta. At the end other victories of Menephtah are glanced at,
      and it is said that 'the Israelites (I-s-y-r-a-e-l-u) are
      minished (?) so that they have no seed.' Menephtah was son and
      successor of Rameses II., the builder of Pithom, and Egyptian
      scholars have long seen in him the Pharaoh of the Exodus. The
      Exodus is also placed in his reign by the Egyptian legend of the
      event preserved by the historian Manetho. In the inscription the
      name of the Israelites has no determinative of 'country' or
      'district' attached to it, as is the case with all the other
      names (Canaan, Ashkelon, Gezer, Khar or Southern Palestine,
      etc.) mentioned along with it, and it would therefore appear
      that at the time the hymn was composed, the Israelites had
      already been lost to the sight of the Egyptians in the desert.
      At all events they must have had as yet no fixed home or
      district of their own. We may therefore see in the reference to
      them the Pharaoh's version of the Exodus, the disasters which
      befell the Egyptians being naturally passed over in silence, and
      only the destruction of the 'men children' of the Israelites
      being recorded. The statement of the Egyptian poet is a
      remarkable parallel to Ex. 1:10-22."
         (6.) The Pharaoh of 1 Kings 11:18-22.
         (7.) So, king of Egypt (2 Kings 17:4).
         (8.) The Pharaoh of 1 Chr. 4:18.
         (9.) Pharaoh, whose daughter Solomon married (1 Kings 3:1;
         (10.) Pharaoh, in whom Hezekiah put his trust in his war
      against Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:21).
         (11.) The Pharaoh by whom Josiah was defeated and slain at
      Megiddo (2 Chr. 35:20-24; 2 Kings 23:29, 30). (See {NECHO}.)
         (12.) Pharaoh-hophra, who in vain sought to relieve Jerusalem
      when it was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar (q.v.), 2 Kings 25:1-4;
      comp. Jer. 37:5-8; Ezek. 17:11-13. (See {ZEDEKIAH}.)

From Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary (late 1800's) [hitchcock]:
   Pharaoh, that disperses; that spoils
No guarantee of accuracy or completeness!
©TU Chemnitz, 2006-2021
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