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English Dictionary: Lebanon by the DICT Development Group
5 results for Lebanon
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) [wn]:
  1. an Asian republic at east end of Mediterranean [syn: Lebanon, Lebanese Republic]
From U.S. Gazetteer (1990) [gazetteer]:
   Lebanon, CT
      Zip code(s): 06249
   Lebanon, IL (city, FIPS 42496)
      Location: 38.60305 N, 89.81498 W
      Population (1990): 3688 (1450 housing units)
      Area: 5.1 sq km (land), 0.0 sq km (water)
      Zip code(s): 62254
   Lebanon, IN (city, FIPS 42624)
      Location: 40.05164 N, 86.47346 W
      Population (1990): 12059 (4910 housing units)
      Area: 15.6 sq km (land), 0.0 sq km (water)
      Zip code(s): 46052
   Lebanon, KS (city, FIPS 39100)
      Location: 39.81049 N, 98.55705 W
      Population (1990): 364 (228 housing units)
      Area: 0.8 sq km (land), 0.0 sq km (water)
   Lebanon, KY (city, FIPS 44344)
      Location: 37.56703 N, 85.25444 W
      Population (1990): 5695 (2388 housing units)
      Area: 10.7 sq km (land), 0.0 sq km (water)
      Zip code(s): 40033
   Lebanon, MO (city, FIPS 41168)
      Location: 37.67055 N, 92.66086 W
      Population (1990): 9983 (4784 housing units)
      Area: 31.5 sq km (land), 0.1 sq km (water)
      Zip code(s): 65536
   Lebanon, NE (village, FIPS 26455)
      Location: 40.04921 N, 100.27593 W
      Population (1990): 75 (46 housing units)
      Area: 0.4 sq km (land), 0.0 sq km (water)
      Zip code(s): 69036
   Lebanon, NH (city, FIPS 41300)
      Location: 43.63527 N, 72.25418 W
      Population (1990): 12183 (5718 housing units)
      Area: 104.5 sq km (land), 2.6 sq km (water)
      Zip code(s): 03766
   Lebanon, NJ (borough, FIPS 39630)
      Location: 40.64394 N, 74.83512 W
      Population (1990): 1036 (489 housing units)
      Area: 2.3 sq km (land), 0.0 sq km (water)
      Zip code(s): 08833
   Lebanon, NY
      Zip code(s): 13085
   Lebanon, OH (city, FIPS 42364)
      Location: 39.42666 N, 84.21269 W
      Population (1990): 10453 (4121 housing units)
      Area: 24.0 sq km (land), 0.0 sq km (water)
   Lebanon, OK
      Zip code(s): 73440
   Lebanon, OR (city, FIPS 41650)
      Location: 44.53485 N, 122.90435 W
      Population (1990): 10950 (4554 housing units)
      Area: 12.5 sq km (land), 0.4 sq km (water)
      Zip code(s): 97355
   Lebanon, PA (city, FIPS 42168)
      Location: 40.34131 N, 76.42326 W
      Population (1990): 24800 (10996 housing units)
      Area: 10.9 sq km (land), 0.0 sq km (water)
   Lebanon, SD (town, FIPS 36260)
      Location: 45.06891 N, 99.76588 W
      Population (1990): 115 (59 housing units)
      Area: 1.4 sq km (land), 0.0 sq km (water)
      Zip code(s): 57455
   Lebanon, TN (city, FIPS 41520)
      Location: 36.20978 N, 86.32220 W
      Population (1990): 15208 (6592 housing units)
      Area: 46.2 sq km (land), 0.0 sq km (water)
      Zip code(s): 37087
   Lebanon, VA (town, FIPS 44696)
      Location: 36.89940 N, 82.07853 W
      Population (1990): 3386 (1455 housing units)
      Area: 10.6 sq km (land), 0.0 sq km (water)
      Zip code(s): 24266

From Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary [easton]:
      white, "the white mountain of Syria," is the loftiest and most
      celebrated mountain range in Syria. It is a branch running
      southward from the Caucasus, and at its lower end forking into
      two parallel ranges, the eastern or Anti-Lebanon, and the
      western or Lebanon proper. They enclose a long valley (Josh.
      11:17) of from 5 to 8 miles in width, called by Roman writers
      Coele-Syria, now called el-Buka'a, "the valley," a prolongation
      of the valley of the Jordan.
         Lebanon proper, Jebel es-Sharki, commences at its southern
      extremity in the gorge of the Leontes, the ancient Litany, and
      extends north-east, parallel to the Mediterranean coast, as far
      as the river Eleutherus, at the plain of Emesa, "the entering of
      Hamath" (Num. 34:8; 1 Kings 8:65), in all about 90 geographical
      miles in extent. The average height of this range is from 6,000
      to 8,000 feet; the peak of Jebel Mukhmel is about 10,200 feet,
      and the Sannin about 9,000. The highest peaks are covered with
      perpetual snow and ice. In the recesses of the range wild beasts
      as of old still abound (2 Kings 14:9; Cant. 4:8). The scenes of
      the Lebanon are remarkable for their grandeur and beauty, and
      supplied the sacred writers with many expressive similes (Ps.
      29:5, 6; 72:16; 104:16-18; Cant. 4:15; Isa. 2:13; 35:2; 60:13;
      Hos. 14:5). It is famous for its cedars (Cant. 5:15), its wines
      (Hos. 14:7), and its cool waters (Jer. 18:14). The ancient
      inhabitants were Giblites and Hivites (Josh. 13:5; Judg. 3:3).
      It was part of the Phoenician kingdom (1 Kings 5:2-6).
         The eastern range, or Anti-Lebanon, or "Lebanon towards the
      sunrising," runs nearly parallel with the western from the plain
      of Emesa till it connects with the hills of Galilee in the
      south. The height of this range is about 5,000 feet. Its highest
      peak is Hermon (q.v.), from which a number of lesser ranges
         Lebanon is first mentioned in the description of the boundary
      of Palestine (Deut. 1:7; 11:24). It was assigned to Israel, but
      was never conquered (Josh. 13:2-6; Judg. 3:1-3).
         The Lebanon range is now inhabited by a population of about
      300,000 Christians, Maronites, and Druses, and is ruled by a
      Christian governor. The Anti-Lebanon is inhabited by
      Mohammedans, and is under a Turkish ruler.

From Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary (late 1800's) [hitchcock]:
   Lebanon, white, incense

From The CIA World Factbook (1995) [world95]:
   Note--Lebanon has made progress toward rebuilding its political
   institutions and regaining its national sovereignty since the end of
   the devastating 16-year civil war which began in 1975. Under the Ta'if
   accord - the blueprint for national reconciliation - the Lebanese have
   established a more equitable political system, particularly by giving
   Muslims a greater say in the political process. Since December 1990,
   the Lebanese have formed three cabinets and conducted the first
   legislative election in 20 years. Most of the militias have been
   weakened or disbanded. The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) has seized vast
   quantities of weapons used by the militias during the war and extended
   central government authority over about one-half of the country.
   Hizballah, the radical Sh'ia party, retains most of its weapons.
   Foreign forces still occupy areas of Lebanon. Israel maintains troops
   in southern Lebanon and continues to support a proxy militia, The Army
   of South Lebanon (ASL), along a narrow stretch of territory contiguous
   to its border. The ASL's enclave encompasses this self-declared
   security zone and about 20 kilometers north to the strategic town of
   Jazzine. As of December 1993, Syria maintained about 30,000-35,000
   troops in Lebanon. These troops are based mainly in Beirut, North
   Lebanon, and the Bekaa Valley. Syria's deployment was legitimized by
   the Arab League early in Lebanon's civil war and in the Ta'if accord.
   Citing the continued weakness of the LAF, Beirut's requests, and
   failure of the Lebanese Government to implement all of the
   constitutional reforms in the Ta'if accord, Damascus has so far
   refused to withdraw its troops from Beirut.
   Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel
   and Syria
   Map references: Middle East
   total area: 10,400 sq km
   land area: 10,230 sq km
   comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Connecticut
   Land boundaries: total 454 km, Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km
   Coastline: 225 km
   Maritime claims:
   territorial sea: 12 nm
   International disputes: separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice
   Line; Israeli troops in southern Lebanon since June 1982; Syrian
   troops in northern, central, and eastern Lebanon since October 1976
   Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry
   summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows
   Terrain: narrow coastal plain; Al Biqa' (Bekaa Valley) separates
   Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains
   Natural resources: limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a
   water-deficit region
   Land use:
   arable land: 21%
   permanent crops: 9%
   meadows and pastures: 1%
   forest and woodland: 8%
   other: 61%
   Irrigated land: 860 sq km (1989 est.)
   current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air
   pollution in Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of
   industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil
   natural hazards: duststorms, sandstorms
   international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
   Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
   Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified -
   Desertification, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine
   Life Conservation
   Note: Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East not crossing an
   international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate,
   protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion,
   clan, and ethnicity
   Population: 3,695,921 (July 1995 est.)
   Age structure:
   0-14 years: 36% (female 657,403; male 682,757)
   15-64 years: 58% (female 1,131,450; male 1,016,859)
   65 years and over: 6% (female 111,585; male 95,867) (July 1995 est.)
   Population growth rate: 2.15% (1995 est.)
   Birth rate: 27.9 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)
   Death rate: 6.44 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)
   Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
   Infant mortality rate: 38 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)
   Life expectancy at birth:
   total population: 69.69 years
   male: 67.22 years
   female: 72.28 years (1995 est.)
   Total fertility rate: 3.31 children born/woman (1995 est.)
   noun: Lebanese (singular and plural)
   adjective: Lebanese
   Ethnic divisions: Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%
   Religions: Islam 70% (5 legally recognized Islamic groups - Alawite or
   Nusayri, Druze, Isma'ilite, Shi'a, Sunni), Christian 30% (11 legally
   recognized Christian groups - 4 Orthodox Christian, 6 Catholic, 1
   Protestant), Judaism NEGL%
   Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Armenian, English
   Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
   total population: 80%
   male: 88%
   female: 73%
   Labor force: 650,000
   by occupation: industry, commerce, and services 79%, agriculture 11%,
   government 10% (1985)
   conventional long form: Republic of Lebanon
   conventional short form: Lebanon
   local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah
   local short form: none
   Digraph: LE
   Type: republic
   Capital: Beirut
   Administrative divisions: 5 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
   muhafazah); Al Biqa, 'Al Janub, Ash Shamal, Bayrut, Jabal Lubnan
   Independence: 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under
   French administration)
   National holiday: Independence Day, 22 November (1943)
   Constitution: 23 May 1926, amended a number of times
   Legal system: mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code, and
   civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted
   compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
   Suffrage: 21 years of age; compulsory for all males; authorized for
   women at age 21 with elementary education
   Executive branch:
   chief of state: President Ilyas HARAWI (since 24 November 1989); note
   - by custom, the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister
   is a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of the legislature is a Shi'a
   head of government: Prime Minister Rafiq HARIRI (since 22 October
   cabinet: Cabinet; chosen by the president in consultation with the
   members of the National Assembly
   Legislative branch: unicameral
   National Assembly: (Arabic - Majlis Alnuwab, French - Assemblee
   Nationale) Lebanon's first legislative election in 20 years was held
   in the summer of 1992; the National Assembly is composed of 128
   deputies, one-half Christian and one-half Muslim; its mandate expires
   in 1996
   Judicial branch: four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil and
   commercial cases and one court for criminal cases)
   Political parties and leaders: political party activity is organized
   along largely sectarian lines; numerous political groupings exist,
   consisting of individual political figures and followers motivated by
   religious, clan, and economic considerations
   Member of: ABEDA, ACCT, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77,
   Diplomatic representation in US:
   chief of mission: Ambassador Riyad TABBARAH
   chancery: 2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
   telephone: [1] (202) 939-6300
   FAX: [1] (202) 939-6324
   consulate(s) general: Detroit, New York, and Los Angeles
   US diplomatic representation:
   chief of mission: (vacant)
   embassy: Antelias, Beirut
   address: P. O. Box 70-840, Beirut; PSC 815, Box 2, Beirut; FPO AE
   telephone: [961] (1) 402200, 403300, 416502, 426183, 417774
   FAX: [961] (1) 407112
   Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), white (double width), and
   red with a green and brown cedar tree centered in the white band
   Overview: The 1975-1991 civil war seriously damaged Lebanon's economic
   infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended
   Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. A
   tentative peace has enabled the central government to begin restoring
   control in Beirut, collect taxes, and regain access to key port and
   government facilities. The battered economy has also been propped up
   by a financially sound banking system and resilient small- and
   medium-scale manufacturers. Family remittances, banking transactions,
   manufactured and farm exports, the narcotics trade, and international
   emergency aid are the main sources of foreign exchange. In the
   relatively settled year of 1991, industrial production, agricultural
   output, and exports showed substantial gains. The further rebuilding
   of the war-ravaged country was delayed in 1992 because of an upturn in
   political wrangling. In October 1992, Rafiq HARIRI was appointed Prime
   Minister. HARIRI, a wealthy entrepreneur, announced ambitious plans
   for Lebanon's reconstruction which involve a substantial influx of
   foreign aid and investment. Progress on restoring basic services is
   limited. Since Prime Minister HARIRI's appointment, the most
   significant improvement lies in the stabilization of the Lebanese
   pound, which had gained over 30% in value by yearend 1993. The years
   1993 and 1994 were marked by efforts of the new administration to
   encourage domestic and foreign investment and to obtain additional
   international assistance. The construction sector led the 8.5% advance
   in real GDP in 1994.
   National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $15.8 billion (1994
   National product real growth rate: 8.5% (1994 est.)
   National product per capita: $4,360 (1994 est.)
   Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1994 est.)
   Unemployment rate: 35% (1993 est.)
   revenues: $1.4 billion
   expenditures: $3.2 billion (1994 est.)
   Exports: $925 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
   commodities: agricultural products, chemicals, textiles, precious and
   semiprecious metals and jewelry, metals and metal products
   partners: Saudi Arabia 21%, Switzerland 9.5%, Jordan 6%, Kuwait 12%,
   US 5%
   Imports: $4.1 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
   commodities: consumer goods, machinery and transport equipment,
   petroleum products
   partners: Italy 14%, France 12%, US 6%, Turkey 5%, Saudi Arabia 3%
   External debt: $765 million (1994 est.)
   Industrial production: growth rate 25% (1993 est.)
   capacity: 1,220,000 kW
   production: 2.5 billion kWh
   consumption per capita: 676 kWh (1993)
   Industries: banking, food processing, textiles, cement, oil refining,
   chemicals, jewelry, some metal fabricating
   Agriculture: principal products - citrus fruits, vegetables, potatoes,
   olives, tobacco, hemp (hashish), sheep, goats; not self-sufficient in
   Illicit drugs: illicit producer of hashish and heroin for the
   international drug trade; hashish production is shipped to Western
   Europe, the Middle East, and North and South America; increasingly a
   key locus of cocaine processing and trafficking; a Lebanese/Syrian
   1994 eradication campaign eliminated the opium crop and caused a 50%
   decrease in the cannabis crop
   Economic aid: the government estimates that it has received $1.7
   billion in aid and has an additional $725 million in commitments to
   support its $3 billion National Emergency Recovery Program
   Currency: 1 Lebanese pound (#L) = 100 piasters
   Exchange rates: Lebanese pounds (#L) per US$1 - 1,644.6 (January
   1995), 1,680.1 (1994), 1,741.4 (1993), 1,712.8 (1992), 928.23 (1991),
   695.09 (1990)
   Fiscal year: calendar year
   total: 222 km
   standard gauge: 222 km 1.435-m
   note: system in disrepair, considered inoperable
   total: 7,300 km
   paved: 6,200 km
   unpaved: gravel 450 km; improved earth 650 km
   Pipelines: crude oil 72 km (none in operation)
   Ports: Al Batrun, Al Mina, An Naqurah, Antilyas, Az Zahrani, Beirut,
   Jubayl, Juniyah, Shikka Jadidah, Sidon, Tripoli, Tyre
   Merchant marine:
   total: 64 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 260,383 GRT/381,937 DWT
   ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 41, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk
   1, combination ore/oil 1, container 2, livestock carrier 6,
   refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, specialized tanker 1,
   vehicle carrier 2
   total: 9
   with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
   with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
   with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
   with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
   with paved runways under 914 m: 2
   with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 1
   Telephone system: 325,000 telephones; 95 telephones/1,000 persons;
   telecommunications system severely damaged by civil war; rebuilding
   still underway
   local: NA
   intercity: primarily microwave radio relay and cable
   international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean) earth
   stations (erratic operations); coaxial cable to Syria; microwave radio
   relay to Syria but inoperable beyond Syria to Jordan; 3 submarine
   coaxial cables
   broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0; note - numerous AM and FM
   stations are operated sporadically by various factions
   radios: NA
   broadcast stations: 13
   televisions: NA
   Lebanon:Defense Forces
   Branches: Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF; includes Army, Navy, and Air
   Manpower availability: males age 15-49 857,698; males fit for military
   service 533,640 (1995 est.)
   Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $278 million, 5.5% of
   GDP (1994)
No guarantee of accuracy or completeness!
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